Sherpa : « La première étape du renforcement des droits fonciers des populations locales ? Les informer qu’ils ont des droits »

Marie-Laure Guislain travaille comme coordinatrice juridique chez Sherpa. Elle nous parle de la « caravane juridique » mise en œuvre par l’ONG pour renforcer les capacités de la société civile à la RSE (Responsabilité sociale des entreprises), à la possibilité de faire valoir les droits des communautés, des riverains et des travailleurs vis-à-vis des entreprises qui investissent dans le sol en Afrique. La caravane juridique s’est déjà rendue au Togo et au Cameroun en septembre et en décembre 2012.  Plusieurs autres pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest sont sur sa liste dans les prochains mois.

Sur le foncier, la caravane juridique « se fixe un triple objectif », indique Marie-Laure Guislain : régulariser les indemnisations dues mais non versées même lorsqu’elles sont insignifiantes, plaider pour une évolution vertueuse des règles d’indemnisation et sensibiliser les médias aux marges de progression existantes, et établir le bilan de la mise en œuvre des principes directeurs.

Ces derniers sont la seule référence multilatérale existante forgée par l’OCDE (Organisation de coopération et de développement économique), dont les PCN (Points de contact nationaux) doivent assurer le suivi dans chaque pays.

« Dans les faits, ils ont très peu de pouvoir et les principes n’ont aucun caractère obligatoire. La plupart du temps, les paysans n’ont aucun accès à leur droit. Et par peur de se faire tout bonnement exproprier, ils acceptent de céder leurs terres. On leur notifie donc leur départ à des taux d’indemnisation qui n’ont pas été changés depuis 30 ou 40 ans », explique Marie-Laure Guislain.

Dans ce contexte, Sherpa se fixe pour objectif de donner des moyens à la société civile, convaincu que c’est par elle, aux échelles locale et nationale, que les lignes bougeront. Sherpa veut servir de lien entre des sociétés civiles parfois très désorganisées et des avocats.

Pour quels résultats ? « Amener les groupes locaux à porter des cas de spoliations de terres devant le système juridique national, justement pour le faire évoluer.  La première étape vers ces procès consiste en un renforcement de l’information des communautés locales sur leurs droits. »

4  268 réflexions au sujet de « Sherpa : « La première étape du renforcement des droits fonciers des populations locales ? Les informer qu’ils ont des droits » »

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