CCFD-Terre Solidaire : « Les organisations paysannes du Bénin ont du poids face au gouvernement sur la question de la terre »

Chaque année, pour une semaine, l’ONG française de développement CCFD-Terre Solidaire invite les partenaires avec lesquels elle bâti son action. La soirée d’accueil en mars 2013, au siège parisien de l’organisation, était pour nous l’occasion de rencontrer certains de ces acteurs qui connaissent et côtoient les problématiques d’accaparement des terres en Afrique.

La terre est un sujet sensible pour le gouvernement béninois

« Au Bénin, les organisations paysannes ont du poids face au gouvernement sur la question de la terre », affirme Bruno, chargé de mission Afrique au CCFD qui a travaillé au Bénin durant plusieurs années. Selon lui, la société civile béninoise est active et écoutée, notamment parce qu’elle est plus éduquée que dans le reste de l’Afrique, et que la terre est un sujet sensible que le gouvernement doit manier avec prudence. En décembre 2012, les syndicats agricoles ont ainsi obtenu du gouvernement des limites légales aux investissements fonciers à grandes échelles.

L’ampleur inconnue des achats massifs de terres en RDC

Pour Dimanche Kakule, juriste et expert foncier à l’ONG Forum des Amis de la Terre en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), l’ampleur de l’accaparement des terres reste largement inconnue. « Dans la région des Grands Lacs, d’importants achats de terres sont réalisés par des sociétés forestières et minières sur lesquelles il n’existe aucune donnée. »

Dimanche Kakule mène un travail de plaidoyer pour la sécurisation foncière des petits producteurs agricoles en RDC. Dans ce pays ravagé par des conflits chroniques, les situations d’une région à l’autre sont très différentes en fonction de la densité et de l’isolement des populations. Selon lui, le principal problème de l’accaparement des terres reste la reconnaissance des droits coutumiers, qui n’ont pas d’existence légale et ne peuvent pas être simplement transformés en droits fonciers.

Daewoo : emblème déchu de l’accaparement massif à Madagascar

« Avec le projet de Daewoo (le consortium coréen avait obtenu un bail pour l’exploitation de plus d’un million d’hectares de surfaces agricoles pour 99 ans), c’est l’accaparement des terres qui a fait tomber le président malgache Andry Rajoelina en 2009 » nous rappelle Herimena Ratsimbarison, responsable de l’ONG HARDI (Harmonisation des actions pour la réalisation d’un développement intégré) à Madagascar. Pour cet expert qui participe à la réforme du Plan National Foncier à Madagascar, le projet de la multinationale sud-coréenne Daewoo Logistics a fortement marqué le pays. Sa licence d’exploitation aurait dû concerner  1,3 million d’hectares de terres – la moitié des terres arables malgaches – pour une durée de 99 ans. Malgré son annulation, « l’accaparement des terres reste un phénomène réel sur l’île », dit-il.

6  910 réflexions au sujet de « CCFD-Terre Solidaire : « Les organisations paysannes du Bénin ont du poids face au gouvernement sur la question de la terre » »

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